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Astronaut’s Gene Expression No Longer the Same as His Identical Twin, According to NASA

Earlier reports saying the astronaut’s DNA had changed is inaccurate.

Preliminary results from NASA‘s Twins Study revealed that 7% of astronaut Scott Kelly’s genetic expression had not returned to baseline after his return to Earth two years ago. Experts at NASA are studying what happened to the astronaut before, during, and after he spent one year aboard the International Space Station. Scientists are conducting an extensive comparison of Kelly and his identical twin, Mark, who remained on Earth.

Kelly spent 340 days on the ISS from 2015 to 2016, along with Russian crewmate Mikhail Kornienko. Earlier reports said that Kelly’s DNA had changed, which makes him no longer identical with his twin. But the reports were an inaccurate description of what really happened.

Kelly’s DNA did not change; it is his gene expression that did.

Source: NASA

Gene expression is how the genes function within cells. According to NASA, some of Scott’s genes changed their expression while he was in space. Seven percent of those genes did not return to baseline.

This means that Kelly’s DNA still has the same sequence as before, but what his cells get from the DNA has changed.

Kelly and his twin are still identical.

Source: NASA

Kelly’s gene expression transformation, however, suggests long-term changes to at least five biological pathways and functions, according to CNN.

To study the changes in Kelly caused by his time in space, experts at NASA measured Kelly’s proteins, metabolites, and cytokines before, during, and after his mission. The scientists found that flying to space can cause oxygen-deprivation stress, increased inflammation, and dramatic nutrient shifts – all of which can have an effect in a human’s gene expression.

According to NASA, the 7% change in Kelly’s gene expression is minimal.

Source: NASA

Although 93% of Kelly’s genetic expression returned to normal once he was back on Earth, scientists note that changes in the function of his cells may occur.

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Rat Study Shows Diet Soda Contributes To Diabetes

Ever since artificial sweeteners were introduced to the society, they have been making various controversy. Many claim they cause health conditions such as cancer and multiple sclerosis. Nonetheless, these were debunked as nothing as junk science.

However, a new rat study is bringing the controversies back to life. It has been discovered that these artificial sweeteners can actually cause illnesses, specifically type 2 diabetes.

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New 7 Deadly Sins Of The Digital World – And You Might Be Guilty Of Them

What are you guilty of?

Pride, lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, envy, and wrath are more known as the seven deadly sins. These are classifications of vices in Christian teaching. While these have been around since the 3rd century AD, a new representation has now come forth.

A Twitter user tweeted an updated version of the seven deadly sins. It's so up to date that you might even be guilty of a few.

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Rare-Earth Mineral Deposit That Could Meet Global Demands For Centuries Found In Japan

Japan could soon dominate the global supply of rare-earth minerals.

Researchers in Japan have discovered deposits of rare-earth minerals capable of supplying the world on a “semi-infinite basis.” The new study, published in Nature, stated that the deposit is abundant in valuable metals.

The study authors wrote that there are 16 million tons of these metals. There’s enough amount of yttrium to sustain the global demand for almost 800 years. There are also enough amounts of dysprosium, europium and terbium to meet the demand for hundreds and hundreds of years.

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