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Astronaut’s Gene Expression No Longer the Same as His Identical Twin, According to NASA

Earlier reports saying the astronaut’s DNA had changed is inaccurate.


Preliminary results from NASA‘s Twins Study revealed that 7% of astronaut Scott Kelly’s genetic expression had not returned to baseline after his return to Earth two years ago. Experts at NASA are studying what happened to the astronaut before, during, and after he spent one year aboard the International Space Station. Scientists are conducting an extensive comparison of Kelly and his identical twin, Mark, who remained on Earth.

Kelly spent 340 days on the ISS from 2015 to 2016, along with Russian crewmate Mikhail Kornienko. Earlier reports said that Kelly’s DNA had changed, which makes him no longer identical with his twin. But the reports were an inaccurate description of what really happened.

Kelly’s DNA did not change; it is his gene expression that did.

Source: NASA

Gene expression is how the genes function within cells. According to NASA, some of Scott’s genes changed their expression while he was in space. Seven percent of those genes did not return to baseline.

This means that Kelly’s DNA still has the same sequence as before, but what his cells get from the DNA has changed.

Kelly and his twin are still identical.

Source: NASA

Kelly’s gene expression transformation, however, suggests long-term changes to at least five biological pathways and functions, according to CNN.

To study the changes in Kelly caused by his time in space, experts at NASA measured Kelly’s proteins, metabolites, and cytokines before, during, and after his mission. The scientists found that flying to space can cause oxygen-deprivation stress, increased inflammation, and dramatic nutrient shifts – all of which can have an effect in a human’s gene expression.

According to NASA, the 7% change in Kelly’s gene expression is minimal.

Source: NASA

Although 93% of Kelly’s genetic expression returned to normal once he was back on Earth, scientists note that changes in the function of his cells may occur.


Three-Fingered Mummies Found In Peru May Be Aliens, Scientist Claims

Are they aliens or not?

Extraterrestrial beings are the center of many conspiracy theories. Are they true or not? There have been sightings worldwide but no one can provide a solid proof of their existence. In Peru, however, the three-fingered mummified beings that were discovered last year, may not be humans at all.

A Russian expert claims that the mummies, which have elongated heads, are not humans. Dr. Konstantin Korotkov, a professor of Computer Science and Biophysics at Saint-Petersburg Federal University, believes that the creatures are actually extraterrestrial beings.

Meet Maria, one of the six mummies found in Peru.

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Inventor Reveals How Real-Life Iron Man Suit Works

This awesome human propulsion suit has earned inventor Richard Browning a spot in the Guinness World Records.

Move over, Tony Stark. We've got a new tech genius in town - and no, he's not fiction at all.

Meet Richard Browning, a 38-year-old inventor from UK who made waves after creating a body-controlled jet engine power suit similar to that one of popular Marvel character Iron Man.

Tagged by many as a "real-life Iron Man suit", Browning's invention has earned him a Guinness Record.

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Elon Musk To Launch 4,000 Satellites Across The Globe To Provide High-Speed Internet

The high-speed internet can be accessed even in remote areas around the planet.

Over the past years, the world has undergone massive changes in terms of technology. But still, even though many parts of the world enjoy high-speed internet, some countries are lagging behind.

In third world countries, the internet service is expensive yet the people receive a slow connection. Elon Musk, the billionaire entrepreneur behind SpaceX and Tesla, may have the solution to this problem.

He plans to launch about 4,000 satellites across the globe to provide high-speed internet, even in far-flung areas.

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