A 4000-year-old Assyrian baked clay tablet is giving us a glimpse into ancient marriages and the earliest mentions of infertility and surrogate parenting. Teams of archaeologists from Turkey have been studying the engravings on the tablet and believe it is an actual prenuptial and marriage contract.
The tablet was discovered at the UNESCO World Heritage site of Kültepe-Kanesh in Turkey’s central Kayseri province. It features small illustrations and texts written in cuneiform script, which is an early writing system first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia.
New research published in the medical journal Gynecological Endocrinology gives more insights into the artifact.
According to the study entitled “Infertility and surrogacy first mentioned on a 4000-year-old Assyrian clay tablet of marriage contract in Turkey,” the text in the tablet describes the marriage of a man and woman known as Laqipum and Hatala. As part of their agreement, the text says the husband could employ the help of a surrogate mother should the couple fail to conceive a baby two years into their marriage.
Professor Ahmet Berkız Turp from Harran University’s Gynecology and Obstetrics Department told the Daily Sabah:
“The female slave would be freed after giving birth to the first male baby and ensuring that the family is not left without a child.”
Monogamy was the normal practice then, and surrogacy was believed to help maintain marriages even amidst infertility issues.
Infertility was also not an acceptable grounds for divorce in ancient Assyria. According to the study, the rest of the script reads:
“Should Laqipum choose to divorce her, he must pay [her] five minas of silver – and should Hatala choose to divorce him, she must pay (him) five minas of silver. Witnesses: Masa, Ashurishtikal, Talia, Shupianika.”
The tablet is on display at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. Since explorations and excavations started in 1948 at the site in Kültepe-Kanesh, almost 25,000 other cuneiform tablets and texts have been discovered alongside this particular tablet.
Old Torture Methods For Women Who Broke The Law
So, you think that prison time is cruel?
The Middle Ages was not really kind to women who broke the law. There are documents of different torture methods proving that incarceration nowadays is the most humane way of paying for one’s crimes.
Torture as a form of punishment is popular in the past. Below are the various forms of torture methods used on women who trespasses.
1. Scold’s Bridle
28 Bizarre Vintage Photos That Prove Our History Was Messed Up
People really did a lot of things differently back then compared to today.
Our history is full of mysteries, most of which were actually quite weird in one way or another. As each generation passes, these ambiguities continue to confuse and amaze us. We might even find it hard to believe that they existed in the first place. Nonetheless, there is nothing we can do. They are part of our history – and they will continue to live on.
Whether you find them scary or bizarre, you cannot simply deny the fact that they are all interesting. So, yeah, why do not we take a look back at some of the weirdest stuff from the past? Below are 28 of them!
#1. Walter Yeo
6,000-Year-Old Skull Belongs To The World’s Oldest Tsunami Victim
The skull could have been the world’s earliest tsunami victim.
Tsunamis in the past were stronger, bigger and more catastrophic than the ones we experience today. This calamity could wipe out an entire population in an instance and until today, people are still not aware of how a tsunami forms and how it ravages the coastlines.
Thousands of years ago, tsunamis were already causing havoc among populations across the globe. A new evidence shows that a 6-000-year-old skull unearthed in Papua New Guinea in 1929 belongs to an ancient person and now, the oldest known tsunami victim in the world.
The Aitape skull was discovered in 1929.
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