A new study published in Psychological Science shows that taking notes by hand, instead of typing them up in devices, may bring more benefits to learners. Pam A. Mueller of Princeton University and Daniel M. Oppenheimer of the University of California, Los Angeles conducted the study to see how these two methods differ and affect learning.
The two classified note-taking in two ways: generative and nongenerative. The former means “summarizing, paraphrasing, concept mapping,” while the latter pertains to noting down something verbatim.
One of the hypotheses is that the process involved in taking notes helps improve learning and retention.
Another hypothesis is that learning also happens when the person looks back at their notes, or even at other people’s notes. Mueller told NPR:
“When people type their notes, they have this tendency to try to take verbatim notes and write down as much of the lecture as they can. The students who were taking longhand notes in our studies were forced to be more selective — because you can’t write as fast as you can type. And that extra processing of the material that they were doing benefited them.”
For the study, university students were shown TED talks about various topics.
They found that the students with laptops had significantly more words in their notes than those who wrote by hand. They then tried to see how well the students remembered information.
When asked about simple facts, like dates, both groups performed well. But for the “conceptual-application” questions (“How do Japan and Sweden differ in their approaches to equality within their societies?”), the laptop users did “significantly worse.”
A second study, wherein students with laptops were told to avoid writing down their notes in verbatim, showed the same result.
The more words were copied verbatim, the worse the students performed during recall tests. Mueller was quoted as saying:
“Even when we told people they shouldn’t be taking these verbatim notes, they were not able to overcome that instinct.”
A third study gave the students the chance to review their notes before a test. Still, those who wrote down their notes by hand performed better in the test. The authors wrote:
“This is suggestive evidence that longhand notes may have superior external storage as well as superior encoding functions.”
New Orleans Restaurant Charges White Customers More Than People of Color
This restaurant aims to help people understand the underlying issue of racial wealth disparity.
You can say that food is a common language among us people. That this great equalizer can get individuals to sit down and enjoy a meal, opening a possibility of conversation. Interestingly, a restaurant from New Orleans, Louisiana is trying to incorporate the significance of food in their rates in hopes to raise awareness on racial wealth disparity.
The pop-up restaurant called Saartj does this by simply asking white customers to pay $18 more compared to people of color. This rate is applicable for the same meal eaten by customers in the diner.
This restaurant in NOLA is charging white customers more for the same meal than people of color.
Company Offers Cash Incentives For Employees Who Bike Their Way To Work
Exercise plus some extra cash? This is a winner!
Riding a bicycle to work comes with many great benefits. Aside from giving your body some much-needed exercise, biking also makes it possible for you to save money since you wouldn’t have to spend money on gas or fare.
As if all those reasons weren’t convincing enough, a small company from Christchurch, New Zealand is now offering cash incentives to encourage more of their people to use bikes on a regular basis.
Creative and advertising agency Make Collective is offering $5 to $10 for employees who ride bikes going to work.
7 Deadly and Most Dangerous Foods In The World
Are you an adventurous eater?
There’s such a thing as an adventurous eater - or someone who likes to taste new food every chance they get. It’s appreciating exotic eats and ditching the usual meals you know you like. Are you an adventurous eater? If so, are you willing to eat some of the world’s deadliest and most dangerous foods?
To many, it’s strange that these deadly eats can actually be called food. Yet, many people still choose to eat them because of their unique taste. Others do it for the sake of adventure; some because it’s part of their culture. A few, however, go for it because there’s no choice. Here are seven of the most dangerous eats from around the world.
#1. Liver Cancer Salad
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