Before Europeans took over North America, Native Americans didn’t have strict gender roles. There were no set gender norms for tribe members to follow in order to be accepted in the community, and showing both feminine and masculine traits were not frowned upon.
In fact, Native Americans considered people with both male and female characteristics as gifts by nature able to view both sides of everything. Native Americans had the following genders: male, female, Two Spirit female, Two Spirit male, and transgendered.
Native Americans did not enforce strict genders roles in their tribes.
In Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1989, LGBT Native Americans wanting to be identified in their tribes officially adopted the term “Two Spirit” from the Ojibwe language. Tribes still keep their own terms, but there was a need to have a universal term that the general public could understand.
For example, the Navajo refer to Two Spirits as Nádleehí (one who is transformed), among the Lakota is Winkté (refers to a male who has a compulsion to behave as a female), Niizh Manidoowag (two spirit) in Ojibwe, and Hemaneh (half man, half woman) in Cheyenne.
The Europeans did not agree with the Native Americans’ Two Spirit culture.
One of the most famous Two Spirits was a Lakota warrior named Osh-Tisch, also known as “Finds Them And Kills Them.” Osh-Tisch was born male and married a female, but he dressed as a woman and lived his daily life like a woman.
The Europeans’ prejudice against native gender bending forced Native Americans to dress and act according to newly-designated gender roles.
During their venture into the New World, the Jesuits and French and British explorers told of stories of Native American men who had “given to sin,” as well as “hunting women” who had wives. This prejudice also inspired Catholic monks to destroy most of the Aztec codices, with the aim of eradicating traditional native beliefs and history – including the Two Spirit tradition.
Religious influences by Europeans brought serious threat to the gender diversity of Native American tribes. Openly alternative or androgynous people were given two choices: either live in hiding or end their lives, and many chose the latter.
Euro-American marriage laws also invalidated same-gender marriages, which were common among tribes across North America.
The Native American culture had a revival in the 1960s. Red Power movements brought the Two Spirit tradition back to the spotlight and has since inspired the wider acceptance of and pride in gender variance within tribal communities.
To quote the late Lakota actor, Native rights activist, and American Indian Movement co-founder Russell Means:
“In my culture, we have people who dress half-man, half-woman. Winkte, we call them in our language. If you are Winkte, that is an honorable term, and you are a special human being. and among my nation and all Plains people, we consider you a teacher of our children and are proud of what and who you are.”
Source: Indian Country Media Network
How China Acquired Its First Aircraft Carrier Through Deception
Apparently, China tricked Ukraine to get this aircraft carrier.
China’s first aircraft carrier was bought under false pretenses, according to Hong Kong-based publication South China Morning Post. Xu Zengping, a businessman based in Hong Kong, was the man behind the acquisition of the Ukraine-built vessel, which would later become the Liaoning.
In a two-part expose by the Post, Xu revealed how he managed to purchase the ship despite meeting challenges along the way. The vessel was constructed in 1988 but it wasn’t offered for sale until 1992. Originally built for the Soviet Navy in 1985 as the Kuznetsov-class aircraft cruiser Riga, the vessel was launched on December 4, 1988 and renamed Varyag in 1990.
The Ukrainian shipyard, which had been ordered to build the ship, went almost bankrupt after the fall of the Soviet Union and was looking for someone to purchase the ship....
Recently Discovered Remains At The Stonehenge Prove Women’s Prominence In Ancient Society
Gender equality isn’t just a modern concept.
For hundreds of years, England's Stonehenge has fascinated everyone from travelers to scientists. While numerous theories have been proposed as to the history and purpose of this UNESCO World Heritage Site, many archaeologists strongly believe the massive ring of stones served as burial grounds from its early beginnings in 3000 BC.
Archaeologists already knew there were human remains under the Stonehenge for about 100 years but they didn't think much about these remains then. It all changed in 2013, however, when researchers found that the remnants of some of the buried individuals proved they were of high status in ancient Briton society.
In short, they belonged to the 1%. ...
US Government Declassifies 750 Nuclear Test Videos – And It’s Truly Terrifying!
“If we show what the force of these weapons are and how much devastation they can wreak, then maybe people will be reluctant to use them.”
We all know it can be very frightening and destructive but have you ever wondered what a real nuclear explosion looks like? Well we have the answer to that now.
Recently, the US government has declassified 750 video footage from 210 atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the United States between 1945 and 1962. The clips are truly fascinating and, yes, downright scary.
History tells us that the nuclear tests were done by the government during the nuclear arms race up to the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. The footage were captured using several cameras from different angles, showing us how the explosion looks like at around 2,400 frames per second. The US government made about 10,000 films....